Majority of the people across the globe feel that when they have a toothache, they can deal with the pain by popping some pain relief pills. What people fail to realize is that something that looks as simple as a toothache can be caused due to different dental problems and it can transform into a dental emergency.
It is hence very important to identify what dental emergencies need immediate treatment from a dentist. Dental emergencies can be classified under two categories, which are dental pain and dental trauma. There are certain types of dental trauma and pain that will require immediate attention and some would even require prolonged treatment from a dentist. Here are the most commonly occurring emergencies:
1) Dental abscess: Dental abscess is a condition in which you will experience a growing, throbbing or sharp pain. Physical symptoms of this condition include swelling around the base of your gum, tooth, or even cheek. There are primarily 5 types of dental abscess conditions and they are periapical abscess, periodontal abscess, gingival abscess, pericoronal abscess, and combined periodontic-endodontic abscess. In all of these cases, a dental radiograph is recommended by a dentist. If it is left untreated then the abscess may grow big enough to perforate the bones with a growing danger for internal drainage and infection.
2) Fractured Teeth: They are also known as dental fractures and are divided into 3 different categories based on the level of injury. Ellis II and Ellis III fractures are dental emergencies that need immediate treatment from a dentist. Ellis II affects the enamel and dentin layer while Ellis III affects enamel, pulp, and dentin layers. Dental fracture can lead to severe infection in the pulp area, which contains nerves, veins, and arteries and can lead to loss of tooth.
3) Crown and root fracture: This type of fracture takes place on a diagonal or horizontal plane and involves the crown and root of your teeth. Normally, dentists recommend a radiographic examination or a cone beam exposure for determining the extent of fracture. Depending on the extent of fracture, treatments can include surgical extrusion and even extraction if it is a deep crown-root fracture.
4) Intrusive Luxation: It is a type of luxation injury where the tooth is driven deeper into the alveolar socket. This can cause severe damage to the peridontium and pulp. This condition requires radiographic and clinical examination and might lead to the extraction of the tooth.
5) Dental Avulsion: This is another emergency dental condition wherein a tooth is completely displaced from the alveolar bone socket due to trauma. Normally, the treatment recommended is immediate re-plantation but varies depending on the type of tooth i.e., primary or permanent teeth. If the displaced tooth is primary teeth then re-plantation is avoided as it may cause severe damage to the permanent dental crypt. One of the recommended treatments in such a situation is the Endodontic therapy or root canal treatment.
6) Dental caries: They are commonly known dental cavities and is an infection caused by bacteria. The visible symptom of a cavity includes destruction and demineralization of cementum, dentin, and enamel. This condition can cause transient pain, which will worsen with exposure to cold or heat. Excessive decay can even lead to tooth fracture.